Tuesday, September 8, 2009

Ferrari 550 Maranello (2001)

The Ferrari 550 Maranello is Ferrari's interpretation of a 21st Century 12-cylinder front-engined sports berlinetta.

Technicians were given a particularly demanding brief: design and build a car able to meet the needs of Ferrari customers seeking sensual driving and exciting performance without foregoing driveability or comfort. Ferrari customers are attracted by state-of-the-art technical solutions from a company which has always treated design as an aesthetic response to the demand for performance, and has always built its cars with sophisticated craftsmanship.

The Ferrari 550 Maranello provides superb response to every dynamic requirement, exceptional quality of life on board, and styling efficiency that combines an extremely modern concept with the best of Ferrari tradition. In short, it is the finest two-person GT car available today.


Pininfarina designed the Ferrari 550 Maranello with features that announce this return to the classic front-engined berlinetta as a great sports car. By adopting sober, functional cues consistent with current tastes and requirements, Pinifarina's bold understatement respects Ferrari's styling traditions.

The Ferrari 550 Maranello is styled to be fast and sinuous, its dihedrons stretching the soft surfaces of the sheet metal, creating strong impressions from every angle. The lines are clean and functional, not smoothed or tapered: the car's physical presence underlines its performance.

Fine pillars make the unusually high roofline less visually obvious and stress the importance of the car's body. The optical center of gravity is also lowered by original elements such as the shallow, narrow air intake whose complex shape creates an aggressive interplay between auxiliary lights. The Ferrari 550 Maranello is the first Ferrari designed with visible, integrated front light clusters, themselves further highlighted by the engine's functional air scoop that links this car to its heritage.

Typically Ferrari, the side aspect shows forceful dynamism in the relationship between the long bonnet, small rear cabin, and smooth link with the high tail. Similarly, two outlets for engine bay air in the front fender reference the classic front-engined berlinettas. The rear is simple and powerful: it is higher in the middle where it links to the roof with a small spoiler. The double round lights are characteristic Ferrari design.


The Ferrari 550 Maranello engine is a 5.5 liter, 518lb unit with 12 cylinders in a 65° V, that delivers almost all its torque from 3000rpm. Maximum power is 485bhp at 7000rpm, peak torque is 419lb-ft at 5000rpm, compression ratio is 10.8:1, all controlled by a Bosch Motronic M5.2 management system. The cylinder block, head, and oil sump are light alloy. The damp press-fitted aluminum cylinder liners are of Nikasil. The crankshaft is supported by seven journals on anti-friction bearings. The con rods are light titanium alloy allowing counter-weighting of the crankshaft to be lightened, improving response and balance. The Mahle-forged aluminum alloy pistons enhance thermodynamic efficiency. Lubrication is by a cooled dry sump system. The four-valve per cylinder head is fitted with hydraulic tappets. This system helps to curb emissions, makes periodic adjustment almost unnecessary, and guarantees consistent engine performance.


Ferrari developed a torque- and power-enhancing variable geometry intake for the Ferrari 550 Maranello's engine. The Ferrari patented system alters the fluodynamics of the intake system through a third chamber linked to the manifold by 12 throttle valves with electropneumatic control. The additional chamber shapes air flow to enhance power and efficiency. The intake, like the injection and ignition systems, is managed by a Bosch Motronic 5.2 system for each row of cylinders, linked by a high speed serial line.


The Maranello's insulated stainless steel exhaust system employs variable back pressure through bypass valves situated on the rear silencers. The bypass valves are electropneumatically actuated by the engine management system, based on engine speed and throttle opening. Varying back pressure makes it possible to optimize engine efficiency in various conditions. Greater back pressure allows higher torque under average load, while lower back pressure enhances full load engine efficiency.


For optimal weight distribution the Ferrari 550 Maranello employs a transaxle system with integrated gearbox and differential. Drive is transmitted by the clutch to the gearbox through a three-bearing propeller shaft housed in a rigid steel tube linking the engine and the gearbox. The hydraulic single-plate dry clutch is flywheel-mounted. The gearbox has six dual-cone synchronized speeds, plus reverse, with pressurized and cooled lubrication. Gearbox control is the classic Ferrari type with an aluminum knob, lever and grooved selector; commands are transmitted by a rigid shift.

Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina (2001)

All Ferraris are limited edition pieces, some more so than others. With only 448 produced, the Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina is a very special car indeed. It is a salute to the 70th anniversary of the house that has styled more Ferraris than any other, the 50th anniversary of the two company's first joint endeavor, and a celebration of the Scuderia Ferrari's 2000 and 2001 World Championships for Formula 1 Constructors. With a shape and a name that harkens to the sports racers and legendary sports spiders of the 1960s, and all the technology of a modern Ferrari GT car, the Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina is perhaps the ultimate expression of a sun-lover's Italian automobile.

From every angle the Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina is exciting, and with the tasteful addition of Carrozzeria Scaglietti equipment as standard, it elegantly stands out from the crowd. The most striking aspect of the Barchetta is its open top. Its structure having been specially modified to maintain strength and rigidity on par with the Ferrari 550 Maranello, the Barchetta is designed for al fresco motoring; the removable roof panel is an occasional solution for leisurely driving in inclement weather. A Barchetta Pininfarina's fortunate owner will revel in the glorious sound of the 485bhp Ferrari V12, the stupendous dynamic sensations provided by driving, and the sheer joy of communing with nature from the road or track.


The Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina is the perfect interpretation of the classic, open-top front-engined V12 Ferrari sports car, complete with modern styling and technology. The Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina has a traditional barchetta-style cut to the windscreen (around 4 inches lower than the Ferrari 550 Maranello) with a body-coloured finish to the lower section of the surround. Furthermore it reflects the past as a model aimed exclusively at open-air use, providing just a manual soft-top for emergency use.

Functional and unadorned with a simple manual soft-top, the barchetta-style solution has enabled Ferrari's engineers to offset the additional weight gained by reinforcing the chassis and fitting rear roll bars. Consequently the Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina weighs no more than the Ferrari 550 Maranello.

The Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina's exclusive design includes other distinctive features such as Ferrari badges on the wheelarches, two-piece alloy wheels and a unique aluminum fuel filler cap. The car can be ordered in any colour in the Ferrari range.


A creature of the wind tunnel as well as the outdoors, the Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina's aerodynamic shape is the result of controlled tests that achieved the targets of constant vertical load on the wheels, minimal sensitivity to side winds, and minimal drag. The car's undertray represents another step forward by Ferrari engineers, resulting in excellent stability and driving safety without the use of moving parts or unnecessary surfaces.


The Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina's bodywork is an evolution of the 550 Maranello's. The car is built around a tubular steel frame to which the light aluminum alloy coachwork is welded with Feran. Apertures have been styled for efficiency and beauty. Fixed, integrated homofocal light clusters were designed to improve lighting, airflow, and wind noise. Fog lights are similarly incorporated into the front bumper and the door windows are flush with the windshield frame.


The frame of the Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina is welded from varied-section high tensile steel tubes. Torsional rigidity is 10,850lb-ft/degree, and flexional rigidity is 69lbs/inch. The highest standards of handling necessitate a strong chassis, especially in an open-top car. The frame's design benefits from Ferrari's many years of racing experience, which also guarantees total engineering safety in terms of unitary construction. The safety features are outstanding, particularly with regard to the strong central cage and protective peripheral elements constituting a high energy absorption system. Particular care has been taken with rollover protection, resulting in the twin hoops above and behind each passenger seat.


The Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina uses the same 5474cc 65 degree V12 as the Ferrari 550 Maranello. The engine produces 485bhp at 7000rpm, with a maximum of 420lb-ft of torque on tap at 5000rpm. The cylinder block, cylinder heads and sump are all in light alloy with Nikasil-coated aluminum wet liners. The con rods are in Ti6a14V titanium alloy for maximum reliability at high revs during lengthy high-speed running. The four-valve heads incorporate hydraulic tappets.


Unsprung weight of the Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina has been safely lightened to provide pinpoint steering and perfect control of the car in all conditions, especially those necessitating excellent overall dynamic balance. The Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina has four wheel independent suspension with a transverse parallelogram structure and triangular arms, aluminum gas dampers with coaxial coil springs, and anti-roll bars front and rear. The suspension incorporates a variable logic, multiple parameter driver-adjustable system to vary damper settings.

Ferrari 456M GT (2001)

The Pininfarina designed Ferrari 456M GT, launched at the 1998 Geneva Motor Show, is an evolution of a particularly well received model to clients who in a real Ferrari appreciate roominess combined with flexibility of use: the 456 in its GT and GTA versions.

A further step in the company's tradition of 2+2 cars, the Ferrari 456M GT provides a high-performance 5,474 cu. in. V12 engine but at the same time guarantees the comfort and roominess typical of a GT car. The most rational way to roominess and maximum-performance in terms of safety and easy driving conditions is a layout with a front engine and a rear gearbox.

The aerodynamics being a top priority, the front part was designed in a clear-cut way and a spoiler was integrated in the rear bumper. The particular shape of the front spoiler and bonnet and the development of the rear extractor guarantee an improvement in the Ferrari 456M GT forecarriage lift and penetrative capacity rate.


The car is built around a tubular steel chassis on which the aluminium bodywork is weld by a particular procedure. The two parts are united with the interposition of a special material named Feran. This process makes aluminium's lightness come together with steel's rigidity. To make the car lighter, the front bonnet is in carbon fibre.


Four-seater cockpit upholstered in Connolly leather. Electrically assisted seats with position memories. Analogue instrumentation with check-panel. Air-conditioning with solar climate sensor. Hi-Fi system.


The stress-bearing chassis, in tubular alloy steel, is connected to the independent suspensions with anti-roll bars and anti-dive geometry unequal-length, non-parallel wishbones. The gas dampers are electronically controlled and adjust into two positions. Servotronic rack-and-pinion steering. Self-ventilated disc brakes with pneumatic servobrake, ABS system and electronic rear braking corrector. The car is equipped with a modern ASR drive control system connected to the antiskid circuit: a substantial enhancement of safety even with the most difficult conditions.

Power train

65 degrees V12, 334.0 cu. in., 436 HP front engine. Four valves per cylinder and twin overhead cams. Bosch M 5.2 engine management system. Single-plate dry clutch and dry sump lubrication system. The car comes in two versions: GT with mechanical 6-speed plus reverse gearbox and GTA with automatic 4-speed plus reserve gearbox.

Ferrari 360 Spider (2001)

The Ferrari 360 Spider is Ferrari's 20th road going convertible. In terms of engineering, looks, and performance it is the best production spider Maranello has ever produced. Thanks to the exclusive know-how Ferrari has accumulated as a Formula 1 constructor, it is the most technologically advanced convertible available.

Despite the car's mid-mounted 400bhp V8 engine, Ferrari engineers found a way of creating a roof that automatically folds into its own well between the cabin and the engine bay, thus ensuring purity of line. The intrinsic quality of the design is underlined by the two fairings in the bodywork to the rear of the seats which evoke memories of classic Ferraris. These are matched by the two roll hoops that provide maximum safety for both of the car's occupants. With the top up the car is aggressive, emphasizing the V8 visible through engine cover. Lowering the fully automatic roof transforms the Ferrari 360 Spider, highlighting its connection to great sports racers. As strong and rigid as the Berlinetta, the Ferrari 360 Spider offers performance almost identical to the coupe version, achieving a top speed over 180mph while weighing barely 130lbs more and offering the same amount of room for the occupants and their luggage.


The most striking aspect of the Ferrari 360 Spider's styling is its convertible top. With incredible care, using the wonderful shape of the Ferrari 360 Modena as a starting point, the engineers and designers created a stylish and highly effective, fully automatic folding roof. Top down, the Spider's rear fairings evoke the great era of sports racing cars, smoothing the lines of the roll hoops that protect the occupants. A design tour-de-force, the Spider gives nothing away to the berlinetta on the road, the track, or the boulevard.

Ferrari 360 Modena Challenge (2001)

The Ferrari 360 Modena Challenge was unveiled on July 4th, 1999 by Michael Schumacher at the Nürburgring Circuit. The Challenge version of the Ferrari 360 Modena has been created to give those Ferrari customers who like to take to the race track a strong racing and performance package. In 2000, the Ferrari Challenge Pirelli Trophy, a championship fought out around the world and which dates back to 1993, has seen the Ferrari F355 joined by the 360, the two cars compete in different classes.

The Ferrari 360 Modena Challenge went into production at Maranello at the end of 1999 and the first production run included a limited number of cars exclusively for drivers registered for the Challenge.

Ferrari 360 Modena Challenge Technical Specification

  • 8 cylinder 90 degree V engine, 3586 cc, 400 ps
  • F1 style gear change
  • Minimum weight, ready to run without fuel: 1,170 kg (150 kg less than the Ferrari F355 Challenge)
  • Digital instrument panel by Magneti Marelli with data acquisition system
  • Aeronautic standard fuel cell to FIA standards with a 100 litre capacity and two quick-fillers
  • Automatic fire extinguisher system
  • Racing seat with six point harness
  • FIA standard roll over bar
  • Pirelli P Zero Slick tyres
  • Shell oil and lubricants
  • BBS wheel rims

Ferrari 360 Modena (2001)

Ferrari 360 Modena was unveiled at the 1999 International Geneva Motor Show. Styled by Pininfarina, the all-aluminium 360 Modena has been designed to represent the ultimate in performance, lightness and advanced engineering and is the result of four years intensive research and design. This 'small' Ferrari incorporates superb handling due to a revised suspension system, excellent interior space with an exceptionally refined cabin layout. Powered by a normally aspirated, 400 hp, 3.6-litre, 40-valve, 8-cylinder engine the 360 Modena was available with the second generation of the highly successful F1-type gearbox as well as the conventional six-speed manual transmission.

This car had a significant part to play in the Ferrari model mix and will sit alongside the Ferrari 550 Maranello, the Ferrari 456 M and the Ferrari F355 Spider. Offered as a two-seater sports car, the Ferrari 360 Modena replaced the highly successful and internationally acclaimed Ferrari F355. This addition to the Ferrari range was expected to account for 65% of Ferrari's annual production of around 3500 cars. The Ferrari 360 Modena initially went on sale in some of Ferrari's 42 key markets in Spring 1999. The car was available throughout the international Ferrari sales network by the Summer.

Many of the technical features and the build processes to create the Ferrari 360 Modena are unique to Ferrari and this car promises to be one of the fastest and most powerful GT road cars ever to be produced at Maranello. Luca di Montezemolo, President of Ferrari SpA, said: "In the past six years, Ferrari has launched no less than 10 different models and variants. This is a fantastic achievement and reflects Ferrari's continual efforts to be at the leading edge of technology and engineering design. "The Ferrari 360 Modena again represents a major step forward for us. It incorporates all of the traditional elements of the Ferrari marque but sets new and significant standards for high performance cars. The Ferrari 360 Modena is one of the most technically advanced cars that we have ever produced.".

Equipped with a 400-bhp 90° V8 engine, the Ferrari 360 Modena and the Ferrari 360 Spider are a winning concentration of high technology, style and performance. The extruded aluminum chassis, the special attention paid to detail in ensuring a roomy and comfortable interior and, in the Ferrari 360 Spider, the innovative soft-top opening system are some of the key reasons for the cars' success.

Ferrari F50 (1995)

The Ferrari F50 was a mid-engined range-topping sports car made by Ferrari. The F50 was introduced in 1995, as a successor to the F40, to celebrate the company's 50th anniversary. The car is a two door, two seat convertible with a removable hardtop. It has a 4.7 L naturally-aspirated 60-valve V12 engine that was developed from the 3.5 L V12 used in the 1992 Ferrari F 92 A Formula One car.

Only 349 cars were made, one fewer than Ferrari estimated they could sell. This was, in the words of Ferrari spokesman Antonio Ghini, because "Ferraris are something cultural, a monument. They must be hard to find, so we will produce one less car than the market." The last Ferrari F50 was produced in Maranello, Italy in July 1997.


  • Price (1995): $480,000-$555,000
  • Manufactured in: Maranello, Italy
  • Number Produced: 349 (1995 to July 1997)
  • Inspiration: 1990 Ferrari F1 641 as driven by Alain Prost
  • Dimensions
    • Weight: 2976 lb (1349 kg)
    • Distribution: 42%/58% (front/rear)
    • Length: 176.4 in (4,481 mm)
    • Height: 44.1 in (1,120 mm)
    • Width: 78.2 in (1,986 mm)
    • Wheelbase: 101.6 in (2,581 mm)
    • Front track: 63.8 in (1,621 mm)
    • Rear track: 63.1 in (1,603 mm)
  • Engine
    • Type: Tipo F130, model SFE 4.7 VJGAEA
    • Position: Mid-engine, rear-wheel drive
    • Configuration: Longitudinal 60-valve 65° V12, derived from F1 unit
    • Aspiration: Natural, with Variable Length Intake Manifold via butterfly valve in Intake Manifold
    • Engine weight: 436.5 lb
    • Displacement: 4698 cc (286.68ci)
    • Max Power: 513 bhp (383 kW) @ 8000 rpm
    • Max Torque: 347 lb·ft (470 N·m) @ 6500 rpm
    • Power/Disp.: 109.1 bhp/litre
    • Weight/Power ratio: 5.8 lb/bhp
    • Bore x Stroke: 3.35 in. x 2.72 in.
    • Compression ratio: 11.3:1
    • Redline: 8500 rpm
    • ECU: Bosch Motronic 2.7 (controls the fuel feed, ignition timing, and variable length intake and exhaust systems)
    • Fuel tank: Foam filled, aeronautical-style Sekur rubber bladder, 27.7 US gal.
  • Transmission
    • Configuration: Longitudinal 6 Speed Manual + Reverse, Limited slip differential, RWD
    • Gear ratios: 2.933:1 (1st), 2.157:1 (2nd), 1.681:1 (3rd), 1.360:1 (4th), 1.107:1 (5th), 0.903:1 (6th), 2.529:1 (Reverse)
    • Final drive: 3.70:1
    • Clutch: Dry, twin plate
    • Cooling: Oil-water intercooler between gearbox lubricant and engine
  • Chassis
    • Type: Central carbon fiber tub, light-alloy suspension and engine-gearbox assembly mounting points co-polymerised to the chassis
    • Materials: Carbon fiber, epoxy resin, Nomex honeycomb core, sandwich construction
    • Weight: 2249 lb
    • Torsional stiffness: 25,500 lb·ft (34,570 N·m) per degree
  • Suspension
    • Front: F1-derived, rose-jointed unequal-length wishbones, push-rods, coil springs, Bilstein gas-pressurised monotube dampers, electronic adaptive damping, electronic height adjustment (40 mm max)
    • Rear: F1-derived, rose-jointed unequal-length wishbones, push-rods, coil springs, Bilstein gas-pressurised monotube dampers, electronic adaptive damping, mounting points on a spacer between the engine and gearbox
    • Travel: 55 mm bump, 60 mm rebound
    • Camber angle: -0.7 degrees front, -1.0 degrees rear
    • Anti-roll bars: Front and rear
    • Max roll angle: 1.5 degrees
    • Electronic Adaptive Damping (Based on steering wheel angle and velocity, the body's vertical and longitudinal acceleration, brake line pressure, and vehicle speed.)
    • Maximum reaction time (from minimum to maximum damping force or vice versa): 140 milliseconds (0.14 sec).
    • Average reaction time (from minimum to maximum damping force or vice versa): 25 to 30 milliseconds (.025 to .03 sec)
  • Steering
    • Type: TRW rack and pinion, 3.3 turns lock to lock, unassisted
    • Caster angle: 5.5 to 5.7 degrees
    • Turning circle: 41 ft (12 m)
  • Wheels/Tires/Brakes
    • Wheels: Magnesium alloy, manufactured by Speedline
    • Hubs: Titanium
    • Brake disc bells/suspension uprights/brake calipers: Aluminum
    • Upper and lower wishbones: Black powder-coated steel
    • Front Wheels: 18 in. x 8.5 in.
    • Front Tires: 245/35ZR-18 Goodyear Eagle F1 GS Fiorano (35psi)
    • Front Brakes: 14.0 in. Brembo Cross-drilled & ventilated cast iron discs, 4 piston aluminum Brembo calipers, Pagid brake pads, [[unassisted
    • Rear Wheels: 18 in. x 13 in.
    • Rear Tires: 335/30ZR-18 Goodyear Eagle F1 GS Fiorano (30psi)
    • Rear Brakes: 13.2 in. Brembo Cross-drilled & ventilated cast iron discs, 4 piston aluminum Brembo calipers, Pagid brake pads, unassisted
    • Unsprung Mass: 99 lb/121 lb (front corners/rear corners)
  • Color popularity
    • Rosso Corsa (Red): 302
    • Giallo Modena (Yellow): 31
    • Rosso Barchetta (Dark red): 8
    • Argento Nurburgring (Silver): 4
    • Nero Daytona (Black): 4
  • Performance
    • 0-60 mph (0-97 km/h): 3.7 sec
    • 0-100 mph (0-161 km/h): 8.2 sec
    • 0-1000 m: 21.7 sec
    • 0-1 mile: 30.3 sec
    • 60-0 mph: 118 ft (36 m)
    • 1/4 Mile: 12.1 seconds @ 123.0 mph (198 km/h)
    • Top speed: 202 mph (325 km/h)
    • Downforce: 970 lb @ 202 mph (325 km/h), 40%/60% (front/rear)
    • Cd: 0.372
    • Skidpad: 1.03g
    • Slalom: 71.8 mph (115.6 km/h)
    • Fuel economy: 8/11 mpg (cty/hwy) (US gallon) (Factory numbers: 8.4/14.1 mpg)

Ferrari F40 (1987)

The Ferrari F40 is a mid-engine, rear-wheel drive, two-door coupé sports car produced by Ferrari from 1987 to 1992 as the successor to the Ferrari 288 GTO. From 1987 to 1989 it held the title as the world's fastest street-legal production car, and during its years of production, was Ferrari's fastest, most powerful, and most expensive car. It was intended that there were to be 400 Ferrari F40 made, all painted red, but a total 1,315 F40s were produced.

The Ferrari F40 was, in the most literal sense, designed as the successor to the company's GTO supercar, but the project's meaning ran deeper. At ninety years old, Enzo Ferrari was keenly aware that his life was coming to an end, and was somewhat disappointed that Ferrari's dominance in international motorsport had faded somewhat over the years. As a result, Enzo wanted a new pet project put into the pipelines, something that could remind the world of the company's capabilities as a manufacturer as well as provide both a competitor to the Porsche 959 and come to be his masterpiece; the company's impending 40th anniversary provided just the right occasion for the car to debut. The plan was simple: create a vehicle that combined the company's best technologies into a no-frills sports car that would come as close as possible to being a full fledged race vehicle while still retaining the necessary equipment to be a street-legal product. It was the last car to be commissioned by Enzo himself before his death.

The Ferrari F40 was designed with aerodynamics in mind, and is very much a creation of its time. For speed the car relied more on its shape than its power. Frontal area was reduced, and airflow greatly smoothed, but stability rather than terminal velocity was a primary concern. So too was cooling as the forced induction engine generated a great deal of heat. In consequence, the car was somewhat like an open-wheel racing car with a body. It had a partial undertray to smooth airflow beneath the radiator, front section, and the cabin, and a second one with diffusers behind the motor, but the engine bay was not sealed. Nonetheless, the Ferrari F40 had an impressively low Cd of 0.34 with lift controlled by its spoilers and wing.

Power came from an enlarged, 2.9 L (2936 cc) version of the GTO's twin IHI turbocharged V8 developing 478 PS (352 kW/471 hp) under 110 kPa (16 psi) of boost. The suspension setup, like the GTO's, remained a double wishbone setup, though many parts were upgraded and settings were changed; the unusually low ground clearance prompted Ferrari to include the ability to raise the vehicle's ground clearance when necessary.

The body was an entirely new design by Pininfarina featuring panels made of kevlar, carbon fiber, and aluminum for strength and low weight, and intense aerodynamic testing was employed. Weight was further minimized through the use of a plastic windshield and windows and no carpets, sound system, or door handles were installed although the cars did have air conditioning. Early cars had fixed windows, although newer windows that could be rolled down were installed into later cars and the Ferrari F40 did without a catalytic converter until 1990 when US regulations made them a requirement for emissions control reasons.

As early as 1984, the Maranello factory had begun development of an evolution model of the 288 GTO intended to compete against the 959 in FIA Group B. However, when the FIA brought an end to the Group B category for the 1986 season, Enzo was left with five 288 GTO Evoluzione development cars, and no series in which to campaign them. Enzo's desire to leave a legacy in his final supercar allowed the Evoluzione program to be further developed to produce a car exclusively for road use.

The factory never intended to race the Ferrari F40, but the car saw competition as early as 1989 when it debuted in the Laguna Seca round of the IMSA, appearing in the GTO category, with a LM evolution model driven by Jean Alesi, finishing third to the two faster spaceframed four wheel drive Audi 90 and beating a host of other factory backed spaceframe specials that dominated the races. Despite lack of factory backing, the car would soon have another successful season there under a host of guest drivers such as Jean-Pierre Jabouille, Jacques Laffite and Hurley Haywood taking a total of three second places and one third.

Although the Ferrari F40 would not return to IMSA for the following season, it would later be a popular choice by privateers to compete in numerous domestic GT series including JGTC. In 1994, the car made its debut in international competitions, with one cars campaigned in the BPR Global GT Series by Strandell, winning at the 4 Hours of Vallelunga. In 1995, the number of F40s climbed to four, developed independently by Pilot-Aldix Racing (F40 LM) and Strandell (F40 GTE, racing under the Ferrari Club Italia banner), winning the 4 Hours of Anderstorp. No longer competitive against the McLaren F1 GTR, the Ferrari F40 returned for another year in 1996, managing to repeat the previous year's Anderstorp win, and from then on it was no longer seen in GT racing.

The Ferrari F40 was discontinued in 1992 and in 1995 was succeeded by the Ferrari F50, which until a newer generation of factory backed GT1 cars that came along, remained competitive.


The F40's light weight of 1100 kg (2425 lb) and high power output of 478 PS (352 kW/471 hp) at 7000 rpm gave the vehicle tremendous performance potential. Road tests have produced 0-100 km/h (62 mph) times as low as 3.8 seconds (while the track only version came in at 3.2 seconds), with 0-160 km/h (100 mph) in 7.6 seconds and 0-200 km/h (125 mph) in 11 seconds giving the Ferrari F40 a slight advantage in acceleration over the Porsche 959, its primary competitor at the time.

The Ferrari F40 was the first road legal production car to break the 200 mph (322 km/h) barrier. From its introduction in 1987 until 1989, it held the record as the world's fastest production car, with a top speed of 324 km/h (201 mph); the record was broken by the Ruf CTR "Yellowbird"'s 340 km/h (211 mph) top speed. The Ferrari F40 was publicly proven capable of its rated top speed in 1992 through an infamous incident in which a Japanese dealership owner proved the car's potential by filming himself touching its top speed on an expressway only to be arrested after he sold a videotape to an undercover policeman. By that time, he already sold ten thousand videos.

During the 2006 Bonneville Speed Week, Amir Rosenbaum of Spectre Performance managed to take his Ferrari F40 with minor air intake modifications to 226 miles per hour (364 km/h).

Bentley Mulsanne (2011)

Bentley Motors unveiled the Bentley Mulsanne, the company's all-new flagship grand tourer, at the prestigious 2009 Pebble Beach Concours D'Elegance in Monterey, California.

The Bentley Mulsanne is inspired by the company founder W.O. Bentley's crowning achievement in 1930, the 8-litre. And it was W.O.'s own sensitively conserved company car that shared the podium with the new Bentley Mulsanne in Pebble Beach. This early motoring masterpiece represented the last big Bentley that was designed, engineered and built from the ground up by Bentley engineers - until now.

Nearly 80 years later, while paying respect to this illustrious past, the new Bentley Mulsanne is a thoroughly modern statement of luxury driving and grand touring. Conceived, styled and engineered entirely at Bentley's headquarters in Crewe, England, the Bentley Mulsanne, with its completely new and unique platform, goes into production next year in a new state-of-the-art manufacturing facility within the Crewe factory.

Introducing the Bentley Mulsanne at Pebble Beach, where Bentley was the featured marque, Dr. Franz-Josef Paefgen, Chairman and Chief Executive of Bentley Motors, said:

"The challenge we set our engineers was to create a new grand Bentley that would stand as the pinnacle of British luxury motoring, offering the world's most exclusive driving experience. They have responded to this challenge with real passion and the result is a luxury grand tourer that sets new standards in terms of comfort, effortless performance and hand-crafted refinement - the very qualities for which Bentley is renowned."

The Bentley design team, lead by Dirk van Braeckel, have created a flagship that offers the classic sporting, styling cues long-associated with Bentley - expressed in a thoroughly contemporary way.

"From the very first hand sketches in the styling studio, we were inspired by the traditions of the grand touring Bentleys and have sought to evolve this story for a new generation of Bentley enthusiasts."

The return of the Bentley Mulsanne name to a car carrying Bentley's iconic 'Winged B' emblem underlines the company's racing pedigree and nowhere reflects that heritage better than the famed Le Mans circuit, the scene of no fewer than six Bentley triumphs. Few places offer a stronger or more emotive connection with the Bentley marque than the famed Bentley Mulsanne corner.

The Bentley 8-litre displayed alongside the Bentley Mulsanne in California was first shown at the 1930 London Motor Show. It was the second-built and was W.O. Bentley's company car for two years. Capable of reaching more than 100 mph, the 8-litre demonstrated W.O. Bentley's ambition and ability to build a grand luxury car capable of surpassing every other leading manufacturer of the day. A total of 100 cars were built in 1930 and 1931.

"The 8-litre's breathtaking performance and quality was perhaps the finest example of a 'pure' grand Bentley. Every mechanical detail carried W.O. Bentley's unique stamp and it was the clearest demonstration of a car built without compromise," commented Dr. Ulrich Eichhorn, Member of the Board Engineering.

"The Bentley Mulsanne has been designed with exactly the same guiding principles, so it is entirely fitting that these Bentleys from different eras share the same stage."

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